Pierre Ellis
Journal of Paramedic Practice, Vol. 9, Iss. 12, 01 Dec 2017, pp 528 - 535

Aims: The aims of the current research were to investigate the most appropriate
out-of-hospital opioid for adults with traumatic pain. Providing adequate analgesia
has multiple benefits both during and post injury.

Methods: The literature search was carried out using multiple databases to identify relevant out-of-hospital research with additional grey literature to support. The main themes encountered
were intravenous morphine compared to intravenous fentanyl, and the contrast between them. Discussion: There were no significant differences in effectiveness or adverse effects. Intranasal application was thought to be favoured where intravenous access was unobtainable.

Conclusions: Further research is required to establish which is the most appropriate opioid. This could include a greater focus on the onset time, duration and optimal dose. Increased education and organisational focus would need to be addressed alongside a change in drug formulary for the out-of-hospital clinician.

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