What is the most appropriate out-of-hospital opioid for adults with traumatic pain?

Major trauma is a minor element of the total workload in emergency care, with estimations of less than 0.2% of the total workload (National Audit Office (NAO), 2010). Trauma such as dislocation,...

Is it time to change? The use of intranasal fentanyl for severe pain in the pre-hospital setting

Cannulation is the main barrier to the administration of opioid analgesia, and this has been shown to be a problem in the young, the elderly, the shocked patient and the cognitively impaired. Studies...

Intranasal and buccal midazolam in the pre-hospital management of epileptic tonic-clonic seizures

Epilepsy is a homeostatic imbalance characterised by recurrent malfunctions in motor, sensory or psychological functions. These malfunctions are commonly described as a seizure (Tortora and...

Use of intranasal drug administration in the pre-hospital setting

Intranasal drug therapy is a well-established route of treatment, accepted on a global level within hospitals and doctors surgeries (Jain, 2008) and is currently being used throughout the US with...

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